Swaran Singh did his intermediate from Randhir College, Kapurthala. For further studies, he went to Government College, Lahore and completed his MSc from there. After completion of his studies, he was deployed as a lecturer in Physics at Khalsa College, Lyallpur. In the year 1946, he was voted as a representative of the Punjab legislative assembly and secretary.
After Sardar Baldev Singh's introduction into India's Interim Government, he was roped in by the Punjab Government as a Minister. He always delivered his speech short and simple. He used to treat everyone with great kindness. He soon became noted for his politeness and exquisite personal manner.
He spent 23 years of his life as a top notch Cabinet Minister in the Government of India. Till date, this is the highest record for anybody to be a minister for such a long tenure. Delivering speech was just one of his fortes; he was a deep-thinking and a very composed politician. He could see through tricky complications with clear, undimmed eye. He was the closest advisor of Congress party on matters of statesmanship as well as diplomatic. In the arcade of power, his counsel was regarded with special observation.
In his personal life, he got married to Charan Kaur at the age of 18 in 1925. Together they have four daughters.